Wednesday, September 2, 2020
Cake Mistakes and Kooky Cookies Cake Mistakes and Kooky Cookies Cake Mistakes and Kooky Cookies By Mark Nichol The issue with spelling-tested cake decorators is that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to backpedal on everything that was said, so once in a while they get somewhat imprudent, or show their numbness on the icing. What's more, however the buyers can attempt to eat up the proof, there consistently is by all accounts someone around to report the sweet screw-ups. Missing the messy lettering, this is a very much done icing work. Be that as it may, not exclusively is the cursive composing wretched (note the m and the n specifically), the cake decorator is additionally one of the apparently countless individuals who erroneously accepts that the right method to shape a plural is to include a punctuation and a s. Employment candidates for this profession ought to need to breeze through an English assessment. Close to Pennsylvania State UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s terrible football-program embarrassment, this is a unimportant issue: The cake decorator incorrectly spelled the main expression of this message. In an odd manner, however, it works when deciphered as a progression of the sort of monosyllabic snorts youÃ¢â¬â¢d anticipate that football enthusiasts should express: Ã¢â¬Å"Here.Ã¢â¬ (Getting consideration.) Ã¢â¬Å"Us.Ã¢â¬ (Identifying the subjects.) Ã¢â¬Å"Roar.Ã¢â¬ (Describing the subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ activities.) In the event that you eat an excessive number of these things, Ã¢â¬Å"Huge meÃ¢â¬ may be a fitting confirmation. Be that as it may, there is no quiet e in embrace, people. Not exclusively does the decorator have poor cursive aptitudes, however the individual additionally amazingly dedicated three mistakes in three words comprising (when rendered effectively) of an aggregate of eight letters and a few imprints. Other than precluding the possessive punctuation and s required in itÃ¢â¬â¢s and spelling young lady erroneously, the culprit neglected to prompt energy with a shout point. It a gril. Ho-murmur. Alright, letÃ¢â¬â¢s kick back and consider this for a second: This is a show of crafted by somebody who either has never known about the Star Trek establishment (outlandish) or submitted this odd transposition blunder while intoxicated or in any case debilitated (profoundly impossible, taking into account that the lettering work is in any case praiseworthy). All in all, is this an inside joke about teleportation? Profoundly counter-intuitive, Captain, yet entrancing. This blunder likewise calls for examination. My conclusion: The message was called in: Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d like it to state Ã¢â¬ËSheri,Ã¢â¬â¢ with an i.Ã¢â¬ The cake decorator deciphered the message in an unexpected way. Why? Who in their correct brain would think the message, as introduced, has any significance to anybody? The culprit was clearly not intellectually connected with or was intellectually unsettled during the innovative procedure. Ã¢â¬Å"Your cuteÃ¢â¬ what? Gracious, the decorator came up short on space for Ã¢â¬Å"smileÃ¢â¬ or whatever. Wrong. It ought to be Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re cute.Ã¢â¬ But the quantity of individuals who donÃ¢â¬â¢t know or comprehend the contrast among youÃ¢â¬â¢re and your is expanding exponentially, in my discernment and our treat decorator is one of them. These pictures are from the sites Apostrophe Abuse, English Fail Blog, and Wordsplosion! Need to improve your English shortly a day? Get a membership and begin accepting our composing tips and activities every day! Continue learning! Peruse the General class, check our famous posts, or pick a related post below:How to Format a UK Business Letter35 Genres and Other Varieties of Fiction10 Tips About How to Write a Caption
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Billy Elliot - Essay Example In the scene, he tap moves away his dissatisfaction to the music of Ã¢â¬Ëa town called maliceÃ¢â¬â¢ by the jam. Moving shows up as a livelihood for Billy as he battles generalizations from his dad and sibling to seek after moving instead of the coalmining grasped by his family. BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s tap move scene is noteworthy as the discourse between the four characters in the scene impact. The scene witnesses BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s sibling, father, himself, and Mrs. Wilkinson. The discourse of the four characters on BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s future educates the crowd much about them. Mrs. Wilkinson and Tony heave maltreatment at one another indicating both their anxiety and love for Billy, in spite of the fact that from changing points of view (Daldry). Their maltreatment shows that the two of them care for BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s future though from their own limited perspectives on what he ought to become and seek after. The two characters are disappointed about each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s see on BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s future yet they all need the best for him. The scene opens up in the kitchen which gives the crowd a claustrophobia feeling. This setting is crucial in showing BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s inner clash at that point. He battles to manage cultural and familial desires set on him. Mrs. Wilkinson, his move instructor anticipates that him should turn into a potential achievement while he additionally gets entrusted with thinking about her grandma experiencing dementia. He additionally battles against the sexual orientation job generalizations dug in the public arena. The camera shots during the scene likewise show the distinction in class and talk among Billy and the three grown-ups at the table. The camera moves to and fro from the high edge of Billy point of view to the eye level shots of the grown-ups. The distinction in perspectives in the scene speaks to the talk on BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s discernment about himself and what the grown-ups consider him. At the point when Billy tap moves indignantly in the scene, it speaks to that moving is a business for him. His move suggests the way that he can move his torment away (Daldry). This shows
Wal-Mart v. Dukes - Research Paper Example The case went through the locale court, ninth Circuit, ninth Circuit en banc lastly to the US Supreme Court in which the Supreme Court turned around the choice of the ninth Circuit en banc on various grounds which draws in heartfelt help on my part. 1. Contentions for the Supreme Court choice There are various purposes behind the rightness of the choice of the Supreme Court, which might be found on the judgment itself as passed by the Supreme Court, and summarized as follows: I) There must be a typical method of practicing circumspection which ought to be available all through the organization and the respondents for this situation couldn't show it. It was amazing to finish up by the judges that all the administrators would practice caution in a typical manner with no regular heading. (Wal Mart 15-16). II) The measurable proof which was given by the respondents was lacking to demonstrate their hypothesis on a class wide premise regardless of whether it is taken that they were right a t first sight (Wal Mart 16). III) according to Rule 23(a) (2), it was to see if even a solitary regular inquiry existed between the class so as to decide shared trait for a class activity and found by the court that as the respondents couldn't give any persuading proof to show that a companywide biased and advancement approach existed, the presence of any basic inquiry isn't built up (Wal Mart 19). IV) The respondents likewise gave narrative proof in help. Respondents submitted around 120 sworn statements, which is equal to 1 for each 12,500 individuals for this situation. Half of the reports are focused uniquely on six states and half of the considerable number of States have just a couple of instances of sexual segregation. 14 States have no stories. Regardless of whether all the records are taken to be genuine it doesn't show that the entire organization works under a typical approach of segregation (Wal Mart 18). V) If the request for financial alleviation of the respondent unde r Rule 23 (b)(2) Civil Procedure is contemplated ,it was not right as Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23(b)(2) is for injunctive or decisive help and not for money related alleviation (Wal Mart 20). VI) Commonality requires in excess of a supposed normal infringement of a similar law (Hyman). The minor case that they have endured a Title VII injury wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be sufficient to offer ascent to class activity; they should have some normal dispute also (Wal Mart 9). As such the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s activity under Rule 23 was not appropriate. 2) Impact of the choice on future cases Despite the legitimate precision and legitimization of the Supreme Court choice the choice may have some awful effect so far future cases on a similar issue are concerned. The effect might be summarized as follows: I) The courtÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of turning around the case can hurt the implementation of social equality and work segregation laws. The Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of decertifying the Dukes class a ctivity may make it difficult for different offended parties to bring class activities relying upon the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking (Wal Mart v. Dukes 10). II) The truth of the matter is that in the moment case the Supreme didn't lead on benefits of the offended parties cases and this might be the explanation that Wal Mart may confront a great many individual or different offended party claims charging that a specific administrator had oppressed ladies (Murray 2). III) It will be hard for the offended parties to acquire class accreditation in all cases. After the choice on this case, it
Friday, August 21, 2020
Napolean Patriotism is the dedication of individuals to the interests of its country or the affection for one's nation to remain autonomous. Patriotism assumed a significant job in the ruin of Napoleon in that he needed a domain and his adversary's needed freedom. As Napoleon was overcoming lands and making a huge realm his troops worried in the far grounds that they vanquished life, freedom and fairness. Despite the fact that Napoleon didn't understand it activated nationalistic emotions among the vanquished countries. Spain who was a partner of France, defied Napoleon's pronouncement. At that point in 1808 Napoleon ousted the Spanish illustrious family and made his sibling Joseph ruler of Spain. However, everything that Napoleon did, for example, put in an outside ruler, remove respectable benefits annoyed Spanish pride and made nationalistic sentiments. The individuals of Spain revolted in 1808. The French troops halted the mobs, yet the nationalistic soul was most certainly not lost. For the following five years there was fighting in Spain. English troops came to help Spain. This prompted the thrashing of Joseph, passing of thousands of French soldiers and it motivated loyalists and patriots of different grounds to oppose Napoleon. This war between 1808 and 1813 is known as The Peninsular War. In Germany, hostile to French emotions broke out. In any case, the French attacks conveyed German patriotism past the little positions of authors. In 1807 scholars assaulted French control of Germany. This nationalistic inclination spread to the Prussians. In 1806 the Prussians were crushed by the French soldiers. To drive the French out of Prussia there would need to be a feeling of collaboration and unwaveringness. To achieve this there would need to be social and political changes. A reformer said that if social manhandles were disposed of the Prussians could battle with national respect. Military changes improved the Prussian armed force. In the War of Liberation(1813), the fighters demonstrated extraordinary sentiments of enthusiasm and patriotism. What's more, the French were driven out of Prussia. Russia, who was a partner of France conflicted with the expression of Napoleon. So Napoleon chose to attack Russia. Napoleon's Grand Armed force had 700,000 individuals in it. A large portion of officers were not French what's more, couldn't have cared less for the war. In 1812 when Napoleon started the intrusion, Russia withdrew. As they were withdrawing they consumed all yields which were important. At the point when Napoleon came to Moscow, the Russians consumed the city. Much more terrible the winter was in a couple of months. The Russians likewise crushed the food gracefully to Napoleon. Numerous fighters starved to death. Napoleon chose to retreat back to France. In transit back Russian Cossacks butchered the warriors who fell behind. Napoleon relinquished his armed force and returned to France. In 1813 pretty much every country in Europe participated in the last alliance against France. Napoleon raised another military yet proved unable supplant the hardware lost in Russia. In October 1813 partnered powers from Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Sweden crushed Napoleon at Leipzig. By April 1814 the alliance involved Paris, Napoleon was banished to the island of Elba. The alliance made harmony with France. They reestablishes Bourbon government to position of royalty in the individual of Louis. Anyway Napoleon got away Elba and came back to France in walk of 1815. Louis requested his soldiers to stop Napoleon, yet nobody did. As Napoleon entered Paris he got a cheer. He raised another military also, on June 18 1815 he moved against the partners in Belgium. There the Prussians and the British crushed Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. Nowadays of Napoleon attempting to recapture power are known as the Hundred Days. This time they sent him to St. Helena a forlorn island close to Africa. There he kicked the bucket in 1821. Patriotism was an adversary to Napoleon since it prompted the decrease of his domain. What's more, the nationalistic inclination that was felt between his rival's in the end obliterated him.
Sociological Theories and Gang Violence Essay SOCIALOGICAL THEORIES and GANG VIOLENCE Abstract The sociological investigation of group participation investigates the various sorts of impacts that emerge because of criminal association. Due to the social clashes that are related with pack enrollment, this paper will investigate the various hypotheses of social learning and both individual and control gives that identify with the ongoing flood in wrongdoing across Chicago. As we open the entryways of a wrongdoing ridden society, reality starts to unfurl. It isnt Just the idea of helping, the activity remains the boundary between carrying on with an existence of wrongdoing or a real existence that conveys trust. The quantity of fierce experiences has promptly declined, yet, viciousness has overflowed the avenues of Chicago, Illinois. In 2012 there were more than 500 killings submitted in the city of Chicago alone (Lemmer, Bunsinger, Lurigio, 2008). The desensitization of networks have gotten increasingly evident as the acknowledgment of posse action has become some portion of the standard. Perception of vicarious conduct by other social gatherings propose that the defense of decision is wanted, inasmuch as posses accommodate bonds across city roads (Lilly,Cullen, Ball, 2011). Anticipating what's to come isn't excessively far-got, with regards to socialization. Numerous scholars propose that society cant anora acknowledgment 0T crlme wltnout tolerating some responslDlllty Resulting Trom tne nonattendance of disguised standards and guidelines, criminal conduct is represented by the equity framework (Lilly,Cullen, Ball, 2011). Venturing further into the ongoing posse exercises, that have won in the public arena inside Chicago, previous Gangster Disciple Harold Ward, discusses the defilement among pioneers in the city and their endorsement of the cartels from Mexico who have assumed control over their general public all in all (Pundit, 2013). Regardless of whether individuals concur or deviate, social disorder among their neighborhoods s one of the prevailing points of view that characterizes criminalization of posse individuals. All together for the decriminalization to happen there should be additionally composed projects inside the networks over our country. I keep on discussing the measurements about Chicago, however there is something other than one city over the United States that endure the danger of pack brutality consistently. As indicated by FBI measurements, there are 1. 4 million dynamic pack individuals in the United States today. Insights show that in spite of the fact that group savagery has diminished by and large in numbers, it despite everything stays common in numerous areas today. Murder rates have taken off in the course of recent years in the city of Chicago (Lemmer, Bunsinger, Lurigio, 2008). Truth be told, in 2012, the city of Chicago had more than 400 homicides of which 80% is pack related. These killings happened due to posses fghting over turf, endeavoring to maintain their notoriety, and counter against each other. As indicated by previous posse part Harold Noonie Ward, the brutality in the city of Chicago come from the Mexican medication cartels. He accepts that the city of Chicago has become a sanctuary for these cartels to put their kin. Despite the fact that huge numbers of the higher positioning individuals from the packs re bolted up, the mass measure of medications entering Chicago has not seized. Noonie accepts that there are numerous authorities who are benefitting from the medications that are being acquired and along these lines declining to make it stop (Pundit, 2013). News reports show that in Chicago alone there are 100,000 posse individuals for every 12,000 cops (Rosenzweig, 2013). These are clear numbers that exceed each other. On a national level 40% all things considered (in significant urban areas) were posse related and in 2011 group individuals were answerable for 61% of crimes. The normal period of pack individuals ranges from sixteen to nineteen, yet a few individuals are as youthful as hirteen. There was a 25% expansion in group movement in Chicago from 2009-2012 (Rosenzweig, 2013). The possibility of brutality and aberrance has been for some time misconstrued. There have been a few scholar that have taken their insight and made their own philosophy of why an individual goes to savagery as a lifestyle. In light of Ronald Akers belief system of social learning hypothesis, numerous individuals carry out violations dependent on the perceptions they experience. These perceptions can emerge out of various sources, for example, media, family, and companions. Loved ones just as the social standards of an area can be persuasive to an individual as a result of cceptance. This hypothesis additionally says that dependent on positive or negative fortifications a people conduct will be founded on the prizes or disciplines that are given. Whenever allowed a chance to change the brutality that happens among neighborhoods there are numerous who decide to do as such (Akers, 1990). Social control and social learning both recommend that conduct is a decision based . Be that as it may, when taking a gander at the two hypotheses they really take an alternate position. Social learning hypothesis recommends that people Join packs to feel that suspicion that all is well and good just as living the glamorized IITestyle ana tnelr endeavor to Till tne vola 0T an aosent parent. Soclal learning tneory Is best expressed as educated conduct dependent on the ecological and social connection that one has to a network. Social learning is revealing to us that individuals have a decision to settle on a legitimized choice dependent on their perceptions of others, yet stay unyielding to express that their communications with the social environmental factors will be mulled over also (Lilly, Cullen, Ball, 2011). Social and individual Control, by Reiss propose that freak conduct depends on the bond that one offers with their social environmental factors. A people insubordination through socialization is addressed while deciding how an individual responds to the dedication that they have to their social environmental factors. It additionally says that being a failure to their companions is a conspicuous sign of social control (Russell, 2006). A person at this level will keep on being engaged with a specific conduct as long as the social condition in which they experience keeps on being an adherent of good acknowledgment. Social conduct dependent on some random neighborhood can be anticipated in principle, yet being able to foresee the real result of a circumstance is doubtful. Measurable realities give us a thought of the normal scope of where the viciousness is going, however there are approaches to change that (Chibnal Abbruzzese, 2004). Group viciousness is certifiably not a restricted issue, it is pervasive inside numerous sorts of neighborhoods and diverse social classes. As much as we need to accept that the posses are just in terrible territories, we cannot give confirmation of simply that. Sure there might be more groups in a specific region dependent on the affordable status, however that doesnt make it nonexistent for the high class. The flourishment of posses in specific regions has been removed from presence. A people group must take into account esources to be designated to forestall crime among those included. Another explanation that individuals Join packs is for money related security (Wyrick Howell, 2004). The Tragic Consequences of the Rebellion on Animal Farm Sample EssayRonald Akers and Albert Reiss may have strolled into their speculations with an alternate deduction, anyway in the wake of being inquired about, there were numerous regions wherein both criminal equity and sociological associations fortified them as scholars. A social security inside a network, a fght to maintain their notoriety, and having the option to feel a feeling of closeness inside the refined family people Join groups. Having the disguise of ethics and direction gives an establishment to the individuals who are happy to surrender the road life. The probability of diminishing crime among rustic lanes isn't Just going to occur in one day, however it will require some investment and exertion by a network who is willing and ready to roll out an improvement. As we have investigated the two hypotheses we have discovered that in a roundabout way they affect each other. Wrongdoing and misconduct results from the absence of child rearing , the absence of rules and guidelines, unsubstantiated social frameworks that underline ethics, and set up congruity among a network. All together for a network to have the option to utilize acknowledgment of methods and measures in general there should be a type of trust in the network. Wellbeing should be among the most noteworthy of needs (Lilly, Cullen, Ball, 2011). Group individuals need assistance understanding the effect they have on the network. They have to realize that their practices are a piece of an endless loop that will keep on streaming down starting with one age then onto the next. Pack individuals should be reminded that there is an opportunity at change, and it can begin with Just one individual. The general part of the speculations is that on the off chance that we empower youngsters to learn in better situations, give adequate training, and ingrain qualities and ethics to them at a youthful age, that we might have the option to keep them from complying with group life. Criminal Justice reaction needs to exceed the terrible with the great. They have to furnish guilty parties with the soundness they need before they are discharged go into the network. Youthful wrongdoers should be fed and shown directly from wrong in an egal point of view. Guilty parties should have the option to need to circumstance at change before they are Just tossed pull out there with no security, no help, and no understanding to how the present economy endures. Sociological motivations to wrongdoing can be characterized in a wide range of habits, yet to Just acknowledge them as the standard should be taken out as an alternative to these networks (Lilly, Cullen, Ball, 2011). Individuals need to quit harming each, and individuals need to begin living for what life is extremely about. ReTerences Akers, R. L. (1990). Sane Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken. The Journal Of Criminal Law And Criminology (1973-), (3), 653. dot:10. 2307/1143850 Akers, R. L. (1996). IS DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION/SOCIAL LEARNING CULTURAL DEVIANCE THEORY?. cn
Monday, June 29, 2020
SCHOOL COUNSELLING (Essay Sample) Content: School Counseling Major Written Assignment Name: Institution: Abstract School-based counseling is an important form of psychological therapy for school-going children and young people. Counseling is essential for the mental health of children and young people because it enables them to explore, understand and ultimately overcome issues confusing or causing distress and difficulty in their lives. The holistic development of children and young people depend on their good emotional and mental wellbeing. School-based counseling is an important and effective resource to utilize in realizing this kind of development in children and young people. Counseling aims at assisting the child or young person to understand themselves greatly, create a greater awareness of their potential and its appropriate utilization, relate well with other people, cope successfully with the normal stresses of life, build their ability, address problems and work productively and fruitfully. The immediate benefits of school-based counseling include improved attendance and educational attainment, the realization of happier, resilient and confident students and reductions in instances of behavioral problems. Description of the Client Peter is a 16-year old pursuing high school education. Being a teenager, he is aggressively searching for his independence. Peter is privileged to have an economically stable family; his father is a pilot, and his mother works as a doctor at a local hospital. Because of the nature of their jobs, Peter's parents do not get enough time to interact with their son on a day to day basis. His parents are somehow detached from their son's life because of their busy work schedules. Teenage-hood is a crucial stage, and adolescent children need constant and prudent guidance from adults, specifically their parents, on a range of personal matters that include sex, peer pressure, and substance use. The absence of time spent between parents and son has driven a wedge in the relationship Peter has with his parents. He experiences immense loneliness despite the many peers he has in school. Peter is a day-scholar and normally, he goes home after the end of the school day. In the evenings, he gets a chance to meet up with his friends who stay close-by. Unfortunately, among his friends there are those who take part in destructive habits like drinking alcohol and abusing hard drugs. The apparent parental neglect has significantly impacted Peter's behavior; the prevalent and powerful peer pressure has strongly influenced his decisions. The absence of parental guidance has led to Peter being pressured into trying drugs and drinking alcohol in order to get his peers approval. Failure to participate in these destructive habits will automatically disconnect Peter from his friends. Trying drugs and drinking has greatly affected Peter's attendance of school and his overall academic attainment. In addition, his participation in other school activities such as co-curricular and music has taken a beating. As other students register excellent educational attainment and actively parti cipate in sporting and art activities, Peter's performance has declined at an alarming rate, from a stellar to mediocre performance. It is paramount that Peter gets immediate counseling so that he can be salvaged from the destructive habits he is slowly and surely slipping into head-on. Initially, his parents have to be informed of their son's situation and be involved fully in the counseling process. School-based counseling is the best resource to raise awareness of the destructive nature of substance abuse to students such as Peter. The counseling process will involve educating Peter on the health hazards and risks of substance abuse and actively disengaging him from this habit (Baker and Gerler, 2008). School-based Counseling Interventions Peter, being a High school student, needs appropriate guidance that can enable him transition successfully into the world of work and adulthood. Against this backdrop, it is necessary for Peter to receive sound school-based counseling from the school counselor in collaboration with his parents, teachers and the fellow students. The decline in Peter's academic performance, erratic school attendance, and constant isolation will serve as a red flags to underlying behavioral problems (Perkins, 2003). The logical thing the teachers can do is to engage the school counselor so that he or she can help them to uncover the issues behind Peter's erratic behavior. School counselors possess the technical know-how necessary in helping students overcome the behavioral problems they are facing. Appropriate school counseling interventions that are employed early enough in offering psychological help to students prevent a particular behavioral problem from escalating even further (Brosnan and Carr, 20 00). Peter has personal and sensitive behavioral problems, and he is in need of someone who can listen to him empathetically and help him disengage from the destructive drug abuse he is being pressured into. His referral to the school counselor will be made by one of his teachers who has closely observed the sudden change in his behavior. The teacher will first personally talk to him and arrange his meeting with the school counselor. Personal communication between the teacher and student helps the student develop confidence in the process and get assurance that there are people willing to help him (Baker and Gerler, 2008). The scheduled meeting between Peter and the school counselor will be more meaningful if the counselor will be more willing to listen to him. Listening to the client is what heralds the entire counseling process. Listening entails hearing the words Peter says and gaining insight in what he utters (Campbell and Dahir, 1997). The school counselor may indicate the understanding of what he is telling him or her by nodding his or her head and avoiding speaking as the client talks. Effective listening will enable the school counselor to respond appropriately to the psychological needs of Peter. The free-flow of communication is also dependent on the presence of trust between the client and the counselor (Brosnan and Carr, 2000). Students such as Peter will be ready to disclose a lot of information about the personal problems they are facing if they are convinced that the school counselors are people to confide. In turn, the counselors can tap more information from the student-clients if th ey encourage them to be confident in expression and assure them of the confidentiality of the information they share with them. Risk behaviors such as drug and alcohol abuse among adolescents can be addressed through various interventions and programs employed by school counselors. Peter's decline in behavior stems from family neglect, and this will necessitate that the school counselor utilizes interventions that target both Peter and his parents (Repetti et al, 2002). The adolescent-focused interventions include Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and group work among the young people. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy refers to the combination of behavioral and cognitive therapeutic approaches used by counselors to modify destructive behaviors and thoughts (Clarke et al., 1999). This therapy involves holding of a number of sessions between the client and the school counselor in which they embark on the task of identifying the behavioral problems the client is having. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy will enable the school counselor to provide Peter with techniques and tools that will be essential in helping him avoid falling prey to the pressure of his peers. The techniques and tools will alter his alcohol and drug abuse and maybe feel discouraged from engaging in these destructive habits. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy awakens an unhelpful thought, which does not necessarily reflect reality, among clients, and it is this unhelpful thought which makes the clients avoid harmful social situations (Clarke et al., 1999). In Peter's case, the unhelpful thought that can b e awoken in him is the possible negative impact of substance abuse on his future economic wellbeing. This should spur him to avoid the destructive habits of abusing alcohol and drugs. Primarily, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is used in supportive counseling to address the unhelpful thoughts and replace them with realistic and helpful thoughts that will positively alter the decision making of the client. Additional benefits of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy include reducing anxiety and depression among adolescents. Additionally, this therapy is useful to adolescents who engage in self-harm, and it will, therefore, be applicable in Peter's case. An important form of cognitive therapy that is useful to depressive people and those who constantly engage in self-harm is called problem-solving. Substance abuse is a self-harming behavior that Peter has engaged in as a coping strategy to his parents' perpetual absence from day to day life. This form of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy will focus on the problem of parental neglect that Peter experiences, help to find solutions to this problem and teach him how to cope positively with this situation. Problem-solving therapy will necessitate the participation of Peter's parents in his counseling sessions. It will be prudent to let them know that their perpetual absence in their child's life is driving Peter to destructive behavior and hopelessness. This counseling intervention shifts the therapy from Peter to his parents. The possible outcome of this therapy is active participation of Peter's parents in his life which will reduce the feelings of parental neglect and hopelessness thereby d ecreasing his susceptibility to destructive substance abuse behavior. Interpersonal Psychotherapy is the seco...
Wednesday, May 27, 2020
Keats ode To Autumn deals predominantly with the passage of time, described within the imagery of the season of Autumn. The ode is a celebration of change, involving life, growth and death. Keats makes use of many literary and textual tools, which will be detailed in this analysis. A symbolic reading of this poem produces not only a literal appreciation of the text, but also invites the question of whether Keats was making another statement on the human condition, specifically the transitory nature of life itself. The first stanza details the fertility of the season, with growth and ripening being the predominant images. Autumn is presented as a female personification, with many of the allusions being to natural growth; this allusion is strengthened later in the poem. The season is presented as one that is giving loading and blessing with fruit, swelling and plumping. The bounteousness of Autumn is emphasised with still more, later flowers, so many that bees continue to harvest as though the days of plenty will never stop. The description is predominantly feminine, and Keats uses words that suggest pregnancy or a natural state, such as ripeness, swell and budding. The first stanza centres on the growth of the first months of Autumn, and is crafted such that it is read in a slow, unhurried manner, much as the bees are not hurrying to collect pollen from the flowers, as they believe warm days will never cease. The second stanza is a slower presentation, with Autumn depicted sitting, sound asleep, or drowsd. The months of plenty, which the bees thought would never end, are ending. There is an allusion to death in the form of the Reaper in lines 17-18, with the hook sparing the next swath, an extension of the half-reapd furrow in line 16. There is no activity by the persona of Autumn in this stanza, the emphasis on watching and looking over the harvest. There is no haste in this stanza, with Autumn watching the last oozings hours by hours the words themselves are drawn out, using long vowel sounds and soft consonants. The final stanza contains more allusions to the seasons end the soft-dying day, and wailful choir of soft gnats mourning. The opening of the first stanza, with mists of mornings, and maturing sun is brought to a conclusion in the third stanza with barred clouds of the soft-dying day touching the stubble plains of the harvested crop, an evening setting. This stanza compares Autumn favourably to Spring, each having their own sounds and songs. The final image is of the swallows, gathering for their Winter migration. The final stanza deals predominantly with the aural imagery of the season from the opening line of the songs and music to the pathetic fallacy of the wailful choir of small gnats, the bleating of the fully grown lambs, and the final twitter of the gathering swallows. Overall, the poem appears written as an ode to Autumn, although it is delivered more in the format of an internal monologue, taking the form of a single voice musing the passing of time. The form of the poem, particularly the first stanza as a continual single sentence, implies a stream of consciousness approach the poet thinking the words rather than giving them voice. The language is not contrived, and is quite informal. There is very little poetic compression of words, or inversion. The words are chosen for their descriptive powers, supporting the poem based around the imagery of the season. The tone is gentle, there is no haste; this is supported by the use of long vowel sounds and soft consonants. These have the effect of forcing the reader to move slowly through each stanza, until the closing lines of the final stanza, where Keats uses harder consonants, giving a tighter presentation of the closure of the season. The rhythm, although based on an iambic pentameter, has subtle variations that control the pace of the poem. For example, line 5 can be read strictly as an iambic pentameter, although it feels more natural to read apples as a single, monotone word, rather than enforced cadence of -ples in the word ap-ples that the metre would demand. This has the effect of displacing the rest of the metre, giving a slower overall reading of the line. Line 5 also contains mossd, a poetic contraction which could be read as moss-ed, but feels more natural when read as mossd, again, giving a softer tone to the line by removing the stress of ed. The final words cottage-trees contain harder, repeated consonant t sounds, inviting three stresses on cot-tage-trees, effectively bringing the line to a conclusion but without actually terminating it. The use of soft consonant sounds such as s and l slow the reading of the stanza, giving it an Autumnal, lazy feel2E The use of a variation on the iambic pentameter g ives the poem a more conversational or thoughtful tone, allowing control of the words but not enforcing a high degree of rigidity on the overall structure. The rhyme scheme is constant throughout each stanza (A, B, A, B C, D, E, D, C, C, E), and this is used with the technique of enjambement and end-stopping with comms, colons or semicolons rather than full stops to allow the poem to flow. As mentioned earlier, the first stanza is a complete and single sentence, the second and third stanza only being broken by the questions of their respective opening lines. The definite rhyme scheme produces an overall feeling of harmony within the poem, and the regular length gives a feeling of order rather than discord or chaos. This use of harder consonant sounds in the final stanza, such as touch the stubble plains, and red breast whistles, bring the poem to a slightly harsher conclusion, as Autumn turns to Winter. Keats also uses imagery and figurative language to give his poem greater impact. The visual imagery is the strongest, with detailed descriptions of the bounteousness of the harvest in the opening stanza, through to the description of the evening and the setting sun in the final stanza. Keats does not make extensive use of metaphor or simile throughout this text, preferring to focus on the personification of Autumn, depicted sitting, or sound asleep in the second stanza. The auditory qualities are strongest in the final stanza, with Keats making use of onomatopoeia in the bleat of the lambs and the twitter of the swallows. Overall, the use of imagery in this way draws the reader into a visual scene, created by the skilful use of text. Keats builds the sequence of imagery throughout each stanza, providing a visual experience, which leads the reader through Autumn. The conclusion of the completed harvest, the lambs now fully grown and awaiting slaughter, and the swallows gathering for their migration allow Keats to sum up the entire season of Autumn in 33 lines of verse. His images are intense, and immerse the reader completely in his vision of the season. The poem may be taken on a literal level as a description of the season of Autumn. It may also be read as a symbolic description of the transitory nature of life itself, an explanation alluded to with the feminine, almost sexual, pregnant, description of growth in the first stanza, the ripeness, plumping and budding. The second stanza contains the first connotation of death with the introduction of the reapd furrow in line 16 and the watching of the last oozings, descriptions of a general cessation of growth. Symbolic references abound in this poem autumn itself being a symbol for maturity, and the description of flowers symbolising the shortness of life. In addition, the references to birds in the final stanza may be a symbolic reference to the soul, as with the sallows, or willow trees, referring to the whole order of nature, from roots, through branches to leaves and the continual cycle of life. The final stanza and its funereal wailful choir and soft-dying day bring to a conclus ion this cycle of life. This underlying connotation gives the reader a deeper sense of involvement in the poem, and introduces a willingness to re-read in search of perhaps a deeper meaning. In conclusion, Keats has produced a technically superb poem, utilising many of the tools available to the poet, to give on the literal level a description of season of Autumn, or on the symbolic level a description of the cycle of life. The poem enacts the passage of the season, from the rich, heavy growth of the opening stanza, through the soporific effects of the second, to the slow, concluding third. His rich use of the full range of imagery, and his control of the rhyme and rhythm produce an almost languid verse that produce a vivid, three-dimensional picture in the mind of the reader.